GALLIPOLI 1915: RECORDING STORIES
A cross‐disciplinary interchange on the value of artifacts as resources for research into ANZACs at Gallipoli 1915.
Date: Tuesday September 9th 2014
Venue: Toitu ‐ Otago Settlers Museum, 31 Queens Garden, Dunedin, New Zealand
Many different artifacts are used to visualise the World War I Gallipoli campaign. To better understand how the physical geography of the Gallipoli Peninsula impacted on the campaign, how the campaign was perceived ‘at home’ and how ANZAC troops viewed their time in the Dardanelles, access to and the use of rich media is needed.
For those in the mapping community, this can involve using contemporary data capture, analysis and geographical visualisation tools to map and visualise the political geography that determined the need for a second front in the Dardanelles and the physical geography that dictated troop movements and campaign strategies.
Outside the mapping community scholars use other artifacts to support their research. Many rich media resources are sourced to facilitate research outcomes that provide a greater understanding of the campaign itself, from a European and colonial perspective, and from the perspective of ANZAC troops at Gallipoli.
The symposium brings‐together New Zealand and Australian scholars, curators and professionals to provide “A cross‐disciplinary interchange on the value of artifacts as resources for research into ANZACs at Gallipoli 1915”. We seek to better understand different disciplinary the strengths of research into better understanding the campaign itself, ANZAC troops and the wider New Zealand and Australian views on this theatre of warfare in the early days of World War I.
Dr Antoni Moore, School of Surveying, University of Otago
Professor Christina Hulbe, Dean School of Surveying, University of Otago
13:10‐13:20 General introduction
Dr Antoni Moore, School of Surveying, University of Otago
13:20‐13:30 Cross‐disciplinary interchange
Professor William Cartwright, School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, Australia
13:30-13:45 Why The Anzacs Failed so Miserably at Gallipoli
Professor Tom Brooking, Department of History, University of Otago
This talk will briefly tell the story of New Zealand and Australia’s involvement and then attempt to explain the military failure by concentrating on:
- inadequate planning and serious under resourcing in terms of man power, weapons and equipment;
- poor reconnaissance and minimal intelligence;
- underestimating a battle hardened enemy;
- failures of high command especially Generals Hamilton and Godley, but also Birdwood, Monash and Russell;
- the Anzac’s lack of battle experience;
- hesitation at critical moments and getting lost by both New Zealanders and Australians i.e. failure cannot all be blamed on the British;
- inept treatment and evacuation of the wounded; and
- poor execution exacerbated strategic miscalculations
13:45-14:00 ‘Dig Dig Dig Until You Are Safe’: Personal Equipment of the New Zealand Infantryman at Gallipoli
Dr. Aaron Fox, independent scholar
New Zealand defence procurement prior to the First World War was marked by expediency and cost-efficiency. A study of the weaponry and equipment issued to the New Zealand infantry in 1914 provides a fresh perspective on the combat efficiency of New Zealand troops at Gallipoli, and suggests how procurement decisions made prior to 1914 helped determine the course and outcome of the campaign.
14:00-14:15 “Çanakkale Savaşlari (tr. Chanakkale Battles) or the Dardanelles Campaign?” Development of the Anzac Day landscape and the vital importance of naming.
Dr. George Davis, Department of History, University of Otago
Possession of the land is a key issue not only in conflict but also in subsequent peacetime. One of the most obvious factors for students of the Gallipoli battles is the rapidity with which the victors replaced accustomed place-names with others based on their own experience. In a generation or two, the original names were lost. For example Krithia, well-known to British 29th Division soldiers, a Greek-named town in the south of the peninsula became Alçitepe, and very few inhabitants there now recognise the previous name. With the Turkish victory came renaming. This paper will examine the background to this practice and its impact of foregrounding the “present-important” and reducing or back-grounding the past.
14:15-14:30 The Otagos at Gallipoli
Sean Brosnahan, Toitu – Otago Settlers Museum
In June of this year I had the unique opportunity of following the Otago Infantry Regiment and the Otago Mounted Rifles to Gallipoli and on to the Western Front for the Museum’s AV production “Journey of the Otagos”. This presentation will share some of the footage of key sites on the Dardanelles Peninsula associated with the NZEF in 1915.
14:30-14:45 An introduction to Gallipoli sources in the Hocken Collections
Karen Craw, Hocken Library, University of Otago
The Hocken Collections – Uara Taoka o Hãkena collects widely in relation to the history and culture of New Zealand, the Pacific and Antarctica, with a special emphasis on the Otago and Southland regions of New Zealand.
The collections include books, ephemera, posters, newspapers, journals, music, maps, archives, manuscripts, photographs, paintings, drawings and film. In date, they range from the seventeenth century to the present day.
This presentation will provide an introduction to wide variety of materials housed in the Hocken Collections relating to the Gallipoli Campaign including a small number of maps from that period.
14:45-15:00 NZ Army artifacts from Gallipoli
Lt.Col. Amanda–Jane Brosnan, NZ Army
Like many military units around the world, 2/4 RNZIR has a History Room full of memorabilia from activities and engagements in which its personnel have been involved since the mid 19th century. The material displayed and stored in 2/4 RNZIR’s History Room has been accumulated by enthusiasts or donated by families. However, military personnel are not historians, or museums curators, or conservators. Little is known about the provenance of many items. Cataloguing has been undertaken by soldiers, not professionals. Displays are unified by the fact that items they contain all date from a particular period or a particular campaign. The collection contains few items from the Gallipoli Campaign, but what we have will be put on display at the Conference to generate discussion.
15:30-15:45 3rd Military Mapping Survey Austria-Hungary 1910
Professor Georg Gartner, TU Vienna and International Cartographic Association, Austria
The 3rd Military Mapping Survey of Austria-Hungary took place before and during the first years of the first World War, starting in the years 1869 to 1887. Basic sheets are the „Aufnahmeblätter“, scale 1:25.000 or 1:12.500. Other parts are the „Spezialkarte“ 1:75.000. Additionally there are some other sheets of different scales existing.
There exist 267 sheets called „Generalkarte von Mitteleuropa“ resulting from this enormous mapping enterprise, covering not only the Monarchy, but the surrounding European territories also, from Berlin to Istanbul, from Nice to Chernobyl.
The longitude is counted from Ferro (El Hierro Island), which is about 18° West of Greenwich, and 20° West of Paris. The maps were created by order of the Austrian Ministry of War in 1868.
In this contribution the enormous importance of this mapping survey will be highlighted and a reference to the conflict at Gallipolli will be given.
15:45-16:00 Mapping the personal geography of John Henry Cartwright
Dr Kenneth Field, Esri, USA
Maps tend to be used to communicate something about the aggregate of a phenomena. When we look at maps that illustrate conflict these tend to illustrate how entire armies move and how the movement changed over time (e.g. Minard’s map of Napoleon’s march on Moscow); or the way in which strategy played out across a battlefield (e.g. the battle of Gettysburg); or even patterns relating to conflict (e.g. Nightingale’s causes of mortality in the Crimean War). What characterizes these maps and many others is that they look at the totality of battle at a macro-level. The maps, while being well designed and informative, offer an almost detached, sterile picture of the brutality of war. They lack detail of the people involved. They don’t show us much of the micro-level.
In this presentation, I explore how we might use maps to tell something of the story of one man’s personal geography of war. By using artifacts researched and collected by William Cartwright to uncover the geography of Gallipoli as experienced by his great uncle John Henry Cartwright we can reconstruct his personal geo-history in map form. Esri’s online mapping tools can be used to develop a ‘Story Map’ narrative approach well suited to showing linear events mapped in time and space. The map provides both a container for bringing together digital artifacts as well as a linear storytelling device to link them together, revealing the way in which Cartwright experienced the Gallipoli conflict. By exploring one man’s journey we can tell a very personal story that gives colour to the other maps.
The presentation will show how you can build a similar map using Esri’s ArcGIS Online. It will also illustrate how similar approaches have been used to reinterpret maps of the Battle of Gettysburg, Minard’s map of Napoleon’s march and Nightingale’s map of mortality using new web mapping techniques that allow us to animate, use 3D and create a rich multimedia geoblog.
16:00-16:15 Analysing the Gallipoli campaign battles
Dr. Amy L. Griffin, Dr. Bob Hall, Dr. Andrew T. Ross, University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australia
While our team’s work focuses primarily on the Vietnam War rather than World War I, as a part of that work, we have developed a web-based visualization and analysis framework that can be applied to the historical study of other conflicts, such as the Gallipoli campaign. In our view, an important part of the (his)story of past conflicts is that of the experiences of individual soldiers, and how they intersect with, corroborate, or challenge official histories of conflicts. Moreover, histories are typically written from one particular point of view, yet there are always multiple sides in any conflict. Here, we will demonstrate the web-based wiki-history framework that we have developed as a part of our work in Vietnam, including the functions that allow participants in the conflict from both sides to add their recollections, documents and stories to enhance our historical understanding of the conflict. We will conclude with some thoughts about how our tools could be applied to understand other conflicts, with specific reference to the ANZAC campaign in Gallipoli.
16:15-16:30 A site risk analysis of Z-Beach and surrounds using a multi-criteria surfaces derived historical and contemporary spatial data
Dr. James O’Brien and Dr. Rob van den Honert, Risk Frontiers Natural Hazards Research Centre, Macquarie University, Australia
Much has been written about the 1915 Gallipoli campaign landing in the “wrong place” and the “poor planning” involved in the selection of the landing site. Using contemporary spatial data and analysis tools a site risk analysis was undertaken. This analysis uses a multi-criteria approach to build cost surfaces – incorporating elements of terrain (elevation and slope), vegetation type and density, climate variables and barriers to movement (rivers, mountains, opposition troop lines) and other impedances such as artillery batteries. The original military objectives of the campaign are used as the targets and the shortest cost path across the surface is calculated.
Two cost surfaces were produced; the first containing contemporary (2014) knowledge and the second containing the historical (1914-15) knowledge of the area. The originally selected location, actual location and adjacent potential locations were analysed using the contemporary and historical cost we demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of each as a starting point towards the objectives across the surface. Examining the contemporary and historical cost surfaces highlights differences in outcomes based on the differing understanding of initial conditions.
16:45‐17:30 Round table discussion on trans‐disciplinary research
Facilitators: Dr Antoni Moore and Professor William Cartwright
Geo‐placed narratives: Gallipoli 1915
Dr Antoni Moore, School of Surveying, University of Otago
Professor William Cartwright, School of Mathematical and Geospatial
Sciences, RMIT University, Australia